| Documentary History of American Carillons | Chronological List of Carillons in the United States | Import Tariffs on Bells and Carillons |
The first bells made in the United States were cast at the Litchfield, Connecticut foundry established by Benjamin Hanks in 1785 or 1786. Around 1808 he and his son Julius established a foundry in Gibbonsville (later West Troy and Watervlier), New York initially under the name Benjamin Hanks & Son and later by Julius Hanks as sole proprietor.
|Connecticut Courant, September 21, 1808, Page 4.||Northern Budget (Troy NY), December 11, 1810, Page 5.||Statesman (New York, NY), June 25, 1824, Page 4.|
Hanks moved across the river to Troy in 1825 and sold the business to his brothers Alpheus and Truman in 1830. Bell-making ceased shortly thereafter and the firm focused on making instruments. Andrew Meneely had been an apprentice for Julius Hanks in his foundry and after Hanks moved across the river to Troy Meneely bought his shop in Gibbonsville and established his own business.
|Cleveland Daily Advertiser, February 1, 1831, Page 3.||Albany Argus, July 8, 1831, Page 1.||Albany Argus, March 20, 1835, Page 3.|
Meneely became ill and he took his foreman Jonas Volkert Oothout as a partner from 1836 to 1841, after which Meneely became sole proprietor. .He took on his son Edwin Andrew Meneely as a partner in 1849 under the name Andrew Meneely & Son..
|Albany Argus, April 1, 1836, Page 3.||New York Tribune, October 20, 1843, Page 1.|
Meneely died on October 30, 1851, after which Edwin's brother George Rodney Meneely also became a partner in the firm, now known as Andrew Meneely's Sons. The sons renamed the firm E.A. & G.R. Meneely in 1863. George withdrew from the firm in 1874 and was replaced by Edwin's oldest son, Andrew H. Meneely. The firm's name became Meneely & Company until it closed in 1951 due to government restrictions on metal use during the Korean War. Andrew Meneely's youngest son, Clinton, started a bell foundry in Troy in June 1870 with George H. Kimberly. This firm was renamed in 1879 as the Clinton H. Meneely Bell Company then later as the Meneely Bell Company. The two companies competed vigorously and often bitter, with an 1875 court case deciding that each firm was entitled to use the name Meneely.
|Albany Evening Journal, January 6, 1852, Page 4.||Methodist (New York NY), May 30, 1863, Page 8||Troy Daily Times, May 21, 1874, Page 4.|
Andrew E. Meneely of the Watervliet foundry testified at a congressional tariff hearing in 1929 about his firm's work in tuning bells and supplying a carillon in Danbury, Connecticut, proving that American bell foundries could produce quality carillons.
The Meneely foundry in Watervleit provided the first American-made carillon for the St. James’ Episcopal Church in Danbury, Connecticut in 1928 and supplied others to the Trinity Evangelical and Reformed Church, originally in Philadelphia, later moved to Holland, PA; Congregational Church, Storrs, Connecticut; duPont estate 'Nemours'.(electric), Wilmington, Delaware; and the Washington Memorial National Carillon, Valley Forge, Pennsylvania..
The competing foundry in Troy produced only one carillon for the Deeds Carillon in Dayton, Ohio in 1941.
As mentioned above, both foundries went out of business in 1951 due to restrictions on metal during the Korean War.
The Vanduzen Bell Foundry in Cincinnati also cast a carillon for the Community of the Transfiguration in Glendale, Ohio in 1933.
1791 Windham Herald, August 20, 1791
On Saturday last was completed, a very elegant Bell, of about 700 lb. Weight, cast by the ingenious Mr. Benjamin Hanks, of Mansfield, for the __fe of that town. Though the business of Bell Foundery has been considerably practiced in this country of late years, yet the ingenuity of Mr. Hanks in this branch is so conspicuous in crafting this Bell, that we dare announce he can equal, of not exceed European Manufacture. We hope that the meritorious _______ of this gentleman to render himself useful to his country, will meet with a proper reward.
1851 Andrew Meneely (May 19, 1802 - October 14, 1851) grave in Albany County, New York
Memoir of Andrew Meneely ...: A Ruling Elder in the Reformed Dutch
Church of West Troy, N.Y., by Oscar H. Gregory
Chapter III: The Bell Founder
1856 Andrew Meneely's Sons, West Troy, N.Y., bell-founders : proprietors of the old established "Troy Bell Foundry," who manufacture to order chimes of bells of any number, and alarm bells of any weight : who also manufacture, and keep constantly on hand, a large assortment of church, academy, factory, depot, steamboat, ship, locomotive, plantation, hose [sic] carriage, and other bells, by Meneely Bell Foundery.; Andrew Meneely's Sons.; Troy Bell Foundry.
1863 Andrew Meneely's Sons, bell-founders, West Troy, N.Y. : successors, in 1850, to the celebrated foundery of Andrew Meneely, established in 1826 : who manufacture to order chimes of bells of any number, and alarm bells of any weight : who also manufacture, and keep constantly on hand, a large assortment of church, academy, factory, depot, steamboat, ship, locomotive, plantation, fire-engine, and other bells.
1866 "Meneely's Bell Foundry," Troy Daily Times, June 30, 1866, Page 1.
1873 List of chimes and peals that have been made at the Meneely Bell Foundery, with testimonials relating thereto, Meneely Bell Company
1873 E.A. & G.R. Meneely, bell-founders, West Troy, N.Y. (opposite Troy) : proprietors, since 1851, of the well-known foundery established by their father in 1826, who manufacture to order, and have for sale, a variety of church, academy, factory, depot, fire alarm, steamboat, ship, locomotive, plantation, fire-engine, and other bells : as also chimes and peals, by Friedrich Schiller and E.A. & G.R. Meneely.
1875 Meneely v. Meneely, 62 N.Y. 427, September 21, 1875 · New York Court of Appeals
1876 Meneely & Company, Bell-founders, West Troy, N.Y. (opposite Troy): Proprietors, Since 1851, of the Well-known Foundery Established by Andrew Meneely in 1826; who Manufacture to Order, and Have for Sale, a Variety of Church, Academy, Factory, Depot, Fire Alarm, Steamboat, Ship, Locomotive, Plantation, Fire-engine and Other Bells; as Also Chimes and Peals
1878 Meneely & Kimberly, Troy, N.Y., Manufacturers of Church, academy, tower clock, factory, chime, courthouse, fire-alarm & other bells by Clinton H. Meneely and George H. Kimberly
of Rensselaer County, New York, by Nathaniel Bartlett
Pages 225-226: The Bell-Foundries of Troy
1895 Meneely tubular bearings for steam, electric and cable cars: a few convincing facts showing their superiority over ordinary bearings in ease of movement, economy, durability, general efficiency : the Meneely Bearing Company, West Troy, N.Y., U.S.A., the Canada Switch Manufacturing Co., Ltd., manufacturing agents for Canada, Montreal, P.Q by Meneely Bearing Company
1898 Meneely Bell Company, successors of Clinton H. Meneely Bell Company, Troy, N.Y. : manufacturers of church, academy, tower-clock, factory, chime, court-house, fire-alarm, and other bells, mounted in the most approved manner and fully warranted, by Meneely Bell Company
1900 The old Meneely foundry, Meneely & Company
1912 Meneely Bell Co. : manufacturers of church, chime, academy, tower-clock, court-house, fire-alarm, factory and other bells. Mounted in the most approved manner and fully warranted, by Meneely Bell Company
1913 Meneely bells: [catalog], Meneely Bell Company.
1920 Meneely Bell Co.: designers and founders of church, chime academy, tower-clock, court-house, fire-alarm, factory and other bells. Mounted in the most approved manner and fully warranted, Menelly Bell Company.
The Carillon to be Imported by the Park Avenue Baptist Church, New
York, Senate Document No. 118, 69th Congress, 1st Session, May
21, 1926 | pdf |
Pages 1-11: Letter of Mr. Frederick C. Mayer, organist and choirmaster, United States Military Academy
1926 "Old Watervliet Bell Foundry Has Manufactured Famous Chimes Over a Period of 100 Years," Schenectady Gazette, July 1, 1926, Page 21.
1929 Tariff Readjustment
- 1929, Hearings, February 18-19, 1929, Schedule 14 - Sundries
Pages 7819-7877: Carillons (Par 1443) | pdf |
1931 Meneely bells, by Meneely Bell Company.
1937 Meneely Bell Co.: designers and founders of church, chime academy, tower-clock, court-house, fire-alarm, factory and other bells. Mounted in the most approved manner and fully warranted, by Meneely Bell Company
1946 "Bells, Bells, Bells," by Jack Sher and John Keating, Washington Evening Star, November 17, 1946, Page 4 | Page 5 | Page 38 |
1951 "Carillon History in St. Petersburg Started With Meneelys Back in 1785," Tampa Bay Times, November 3, 1951, Page 15.
1952 "Bell Foundry Buildings To Be Sold," The Times Record (Troy, New York), February 22, 1952, Page 11.
1952 "Bell Firm Forced to Close," The Times Record (Troy, New York), February 23, 1952, Page 10.
1994 "The Bell Foundries of Troy," by George Hanks, Jr., Hanks historical review 4(1):1-24 (January 1994)
2002 "Dicovery of a Benjamin Hanks Bell," Mansfield Historical Society Newsletter 38(5) (September 2002)
2002 "The Bell Casters of Troy," by Sydney Ross | pdf |
2016 Large Bells of America: History of Church Bells, Fire Bells, School Bells, Dinner Bells and Their Foundries, by Neil Goeppinger
Meneely’s 1935 speech, by Bill Hibbert
Presented at Schenectady, N. Y., to the combined societies of American Mechanical and Electrical Engineers on the evening of February 28, 1935, by Clinton Meneely of the Meneely Bell Co., Troy, N. Y.
The policy of the Troy Foundry was not to tune bells. Instead of tuning his bells, Clinton Meneely relied on exact profiles and if necessary cast again and again until he achieved the desired result.
Bell Casting in Troy: A Family Affair, by Charles Skinner
Meneely bell foundries (Wikipedia)
Benjamin Hanks (WIkipedia)
Meneely Bell Foundries (Troy & Watervliet), finding aid, Bok Tower Gardens
Meneely Foundry Historical Marker and Photographs
© 2022 Morris A. Pierce